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  • Words : 毛奇(Mokki)

專訪慢食啤酒指南總編Eugenio Signorni

在美食科學大學,第一個出場的品飲課程是啤酒。啤酒課程的老師Eugenio Signorni帶個黑框眼鏡,微腆的肚子,茂密的鬍子,看起來比真實年紀老成一點。他是啤酒專家,也是慢食編輯部的主要編輯,負責評選啤酒和年度小館。

眾所週知,慢食運動是活脫脫源自義大利本土的食物運動,反對過度擴張的食品工業,支持在地文化傳統,並主張不同階級都應該要能夠有能夠享受美味的權力。在這個思考下,慢食支持的啤酒自然是小規模的精釀啤酒。另一方面,固然啤酒可以以使用在地原料的方式來定義「當地風土」,不過即使是義大利酒廠也大部分使用進口酒花、不乏進口穀物來製作啤酒,因此顯然慢食在處理何謂符合「慢食」精神的在地精釀啤酒上,需要更多的心思。

在這個邏輯下,Eugenio的啤酒課程首先從「水」說起。因為「水」在過去,基本上是釀造時難以搬遷的事物,一方水土一方啤酒,形塑差異風格。礦物質含量極低的軟水造就捷克Pilsner清麗風格的捷克特優淺色拉格(Czech Premium Pale Lager),而英國Burton-upon-trent富含礦物質的水源,則釀造出苦韻鮮明的特濃英系淺色苦味艾爾(Strong Bitter)。

在課後,因為深感好奇,義大利自己人怎麼看待自己家精釀啤酒的想法,特別約訪了老師。以下就是專訪的內容,來看義大利啤酒行家怎麼說。

義大利美食科學大學(慢食大學)的啤酒老師Eugenio Signorni同時也慢食編輯部的編輯,負責評選啤酒和年度小館。
義大利美食科學大學(慢食大學)的啤酒老師Eugenio Signorni同時也慢食編輯部的編輯,負責評選啤酒和年度小館。

慢食運動與精釀啤酒

Q:請您說說慢食運動跟啤酒之間的關係。
What’s the relationship between slow-food and beer?

慢食跟啤酒之間的關係是相當獨特的,當然我們也必須把啤酒放到全球精釀啤酒運動的脈絡中來理解。啤酒是很奇怪的(農)產品,原料通常必須要倚賴進口,很少見到所謂百分之一百的在地啤酒,甚至也可以說這是跟工業化習習相關的產品也可以。但我們更看重在釀造人的「意識」,比如說,精釀啤酒帶有很強地對抗大工業生產啤酒產品的氣質,像是精釀運動領頭羊的紐約布魯克林酒廠(Brooklyn Brewery),創辦人Steve Hindy定義的精釀啤酒價值「文化相對性」、「文化特殊性」,都跟慢食運動的理念有很高的契合。因此在2008年,我們就決定做慢食的啤酒指南。

The relationship between Slow-food and beer is quite unique, and we have to understand it in the context of worldwide craft beer movement. Beer is a “strange” product that its ingredients are often relied on import. We rarely see a pure 100% local made beer. It is highly related to industrial style products. But we care more about the “consciousness” of brewers, craft beer has strong characteristics of against huge food industry, for example, the head brewer/ founder of Brooklyn brewery gave some definitions of craft beer value. These values match slow-food ideology, so we decided to launch slow-food beer guide project in 2008.

啤酒是最古老的飲料,是美食文化中很重要的一部分,連結了歷史、社會、飲食的變遷。當然他跟人們的移動、航海時代、工業化都脫離不了關係,比如18世紀的捷克Pilsner怎麼傳到了美國成為大型的啤酒企業。而在當代的義大利,啤酒變得越來越重要,當你描述美食文化時,根本不可能忽略精釀啤酒。

Beer is the most ancient drink known to man. It is an important part of gastronomic culture that connects history, society and transformation of dining together. It is also related to human migration and industrialization, just let us think how Czech Pilsner communicate to US, and became a big industry. In contemporary Italy, beer has become more and more important, you cannot neglect it while trying to describe the gastronomic landscape.

Q:請介紹一下這本啤酒指南。
Please introduce the Slow Food beer guide to readers.

今年我們是出版後更新的第六版,非常難得地、滴水不漏全景式地拜訪了義大利900間酒廠,一共使用上了110位人力,來完成這本新版的啤酒指南。裡面會提供像是策展概念般的啤酒選擇。

This is the 6th version of this beer guide. We visited every brewery in Italy panorama with 110 staffs to complete it. We provide newest information about Italy beers.

我們必須要先承認一件事:不可能每個人都喝到一模一樣的東西,每個人生來味蕾就有差異。但是我們可以確認一件事:這110個人有共同的目標——想理解義大利的啤酒——這並不是一個彼此之間的競賽或挑戰,我們嘗試展示義大利啤酒的可能與樣貌。

We have to admit it is impossible for everyone to have the same taste about one product, let alone a variety of beer. Everyone is born with different palate. But these 110 people have the same goal, which is a demonstration of what Italy beer is and its possibility, it is not a challenge or competition for breweries.

你必須試著淡化自己的喜好,必須要非常有自覺自己當下在做什麼。職業的味蕾是專業的味蕾,不是私人的味蕾,跟喜歡不喜歡沒什麼關係。但要謹記的是,在推廣不同啤酒作品的過程,味蕾要有一個前後合乎邏輯的立場。

You have to dilute your personal preference, and be very aware what you are doing. Your palate is professional palate, not personal ones, so it is not really related to you like it or not. You have to keep in mind that a consistent ground in promoting different kinds of beer.

第六版的慢食啤酒指南,滴水不漏地拜訪了義大利900間酒廠,動員了110個人來完成。
第六版的慢食啤酒指南,滴水不漏地拜訪了義大利900間酒廠,動員了110個人來完成。
義大利的文化與美影響我們烹飪與製作任何事物,啤酒也是其中之一。啤酒是我們品嚐地景的方法。

喝啤酒是品嚐地景的方法

Q:跟其他酒類相比,啤酒獨特的魅力是什麼呢?
Compare to other liquor, what is the most unique and charming characteristic you find in beer?

啤酒跟其他酒品最大的差別就是,因為酒精濃度低的緣故,人們可以長時間喝、喝很多,或許這就是更能夠享受這個酒品的緣故吧。就我個人的觀點來說,啤酒的組成,更像是食譜(recipe)的概念,因此讓啤酒跟其他類別的酒品比起來,有更驚人的多樣性,不同的氣味、顏色和風味。

Comparing to other liquor, beer has relatively low alcohol percentage by volume. So people can drink a lot and for a long time. That is why people enjoy beers. For me, beer is like a recipe, it is brewed by people from different cultures and countries. Which is why beer has so many different styles, diverse colors, variety of aromas and flavors. And that in my opinion is the most unique and charming characteristic of beer.

Q:什麼是最地道的義大利啤酒風格?
What is the most original and local type of beer in Italy?

我會說是義大利葡萄艾爾。這是非常在地而且典型的義大利精釀啤酒,使用各地特色的葡萄、葡萄酒桶來做出風格啤酒,同時具有大麥和葡萄酒文化的優雅溫和。對啤酒運動來說,本來在各地做出不同的作品就是非常重要的事。當然其中不可或缺的是「義大利味覺」——我們的藝術、美麗的事物,這些文化與美影響我們烹飪、與製作任何事物。啤酒也是其中之一。啤酒就是我們品嚐地景的方法之一。

I would say Italy grape ale. It is very local and a typical Italian craft beer, using various kinds of Italian grapes and wine barrels, combined with the elegance from barley and grapes. It is important to make a variety of local beer in craft beer movement. And, the “Italian taste” which inherited from our culture, art and beautiful things effects the way we create things and make cuisine. Beer is one of it, beer is also part of Italy landscape.

Q:義大利市場真的偏好酸口味啤酒嗎?
Is it true that Italy market love sour beer?

這樣說有個前提,其實精釀啤酒還是只佔了市場5%,所以說偏好酸啤酒是需要保留的。但是酸啤酒其來有自,這跟義大利釀葡萄酒的傳統有關,加上自然發酵的作法、疊合上西歐酸啤酒復興的運動——義大利可是比利時啤酒僅次於美國的第二大消費國——讓義大利啤酒在整個美食系統內對酸口味都有很好的理解和掌握。

Since the craft beer only occupy 5% of the whole beer market, I tend to be more careful when describing that Italy market has a preference about sour beer. But, Italy has strong tradition of making wine, and Slow Food had involved in the sour beer movement in recent years. Italy is the second largest consumption country of Belgium beer next to the United States. These factors indicates Italians have good understanding of sour beer flavor in unique food system.

Q:請推薦我們幾款義大利啤酒和餐搭。
Recommend us some craft beer that best describe the charismatic of Italy.

  • BB Boom / Barley brewery
    薩丁尼亞Barley酒廠的BB Boom葡萄愛爾,使用當地的Cannonau葡萄釀造,適合搭配BBQ烤肉或是巧克力蛋糕這樣濃郁口感的食物。

  • ▶Food paring: BBQ, chocolate cakes
    ▶Using local Sardinia Cannonau grape specie to make this grape ale.

  • Mummia/ Montegiaco Brewery
    Montegiaco酒廠的Mummia 是用IGP木桶陳過的啤酒,有明顯的酸度,適合搭配熟肉、醃肉食用,相當開胃。搭配炸蔬菜也是可以的。

  • ▶Food paring: cured meat, fried vegetables
    ▶Aged with IGP barrels, an excellent sour grape ale.

  • Tipopils/ Italiano brewery
    Italiano酒廠的Tipopils,清爽的皮爾森底蘊以及酒花香氣,適合搭配炸物食用。
  • ▶Food paring: fried things

  • NE IPA/ CRACK Brewery
    新秀CRACK酒廠做出很好的新英格蘭IPA(NE IPA),果汁般的質地非常易飲,讓人對他們家的酒充滿期待,可以說是義大利酒廠嘗試新事物的很好例子。

  • ▶A good example about how Italy craft brewery try new things.

  • Beerbrugna/ Lovebeer Brewery
    Lovebeer酒廠和其作品Beerbrugna,是加了李子的陳野生酸啤酒,是很典型只會在義大利出現的啤酒和酒廠。
  • ▶This is the beer and brewery can only exist in Italy. An aged wild sour beer with plum added.

  • Hammer Brewery
    Hammer酒廠的作品,則可以感受到在地酒廠認真釀造啤酒經典類型的心意。
  • ▶A demonstration of how a new Italy brewery make classic beer types.

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毛奇 (Mokki)
關心土地與食物療癒的力量,蝸居城市裡用煮食跟陽光、空氣、水文、田畝,還有親愛的人們說話。聯合報與粉絲頁同名專欄「深夜女子公寓料理習作」作者,集結專欄與多年烹飪心得,於2016年底出版個人專書《深夜女子公寓的料理》,2018年赴義大利University of Gastronomic and Food Science (俗稱慢食大學)進修吃吃喝喝的技能。
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